This is a small amount of computer data sent over a network. Any time you receive data from the Internet, it comes to your computer in the form of many little packets. Each packet contains the address of its origin and destination, and information that connects it to the related packets being sent. The process of sending and receiving packets is known as "packet-switching." Packets from many different locations can be sent on the same lines and be sorted and directed to different routes by various computers along the way. It works a lot like the post office, except billions of packets are transferred each day, and most packets take less than a few seconds to reach their destination. Even FedEx same-day delivery can't compete with that.


When data is sent over the Internet, each unit transmitted includes both header information and the actual data being sent. The header identifies the source and destination of the
, while the actual data is referred to as the payload. Because header information, or overhead data, is only used in the transmission process, it is stripped from the packet when it reaches its destination. Therefore, the payload is the only data received by the destination system.
Pci express- a high speed serial computer expansionbus standered that replace pci, pci-x, and AGP bus standards.


Phishing is similar to fishing in a lake, but instead of trying to capture fish, phishers attempt to steal your personal information. They send out e-mails that appear to come from legitimate websites such as eBay, PayPal, or other banking institutions. The e-mails state that your information needs to be updated or validated and ask that you enter your username and password, after clicking a link included in the e-mail. Some e-mails will ask that you enter even more information, such as your full name, address, phone number, social security number, and credit card number. However, even if you visit the false website and just enter your username and password, the phisher may be able to gain access to more information by just logging in to you account.

Pixel- a minute area of illumination on a display screen, one of many from which an image is composed.
Pop-Up Window-
A pop-up window is a type of windowthat opens without the user selecting "New Window" from a program's File menu.
Though software plug-ins might not make your room smell as nice as the scented ones you stick in an outlet, they are still useful. A software plug-in is an add-on for a program that adds functionality to it. For example, a Photoshop plug-in (such as Eye Candy) may add extra filters that you can use to manipulate images. A browser plug-in (such as Macromedia Flash or Apple QuickTime) allows you to play certain multimedia files within your Web browser. VST plug-ins add effects for audio recording and sequencing programs such as Cubase and Logic Audio.
Processor- The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Processor is the part of a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computers function.

Proxy Server: Most large businesses, organizations, and universities these days use a proxy server. This is a server that all computers on the local network have to go through before accessing information on the Internet. By using a proxy server, an organization can improve the network performance and filter what users connected to the network can access. A proxy server improves Internet access speeds from a network primarily by using a caching system. Caching saves recently viewed Web sites, images, and files on a local hard drive so that they don't have to be downloaded from the Web again.

Push refers to a system in which data is "pushed" to a user's device rather than "pulled" by the user. In other words, the data transfer is initiated by the serverrather than the clientPush technology, which is also called "server push," can be used to send news data, stock updates, and other information from the Internet to a user's computer. It is also used to send text messages via SMS to people's cell phones. Push e-mail allows users to receive e-mail messages without having to check their e-mail manually. This means new messages appear on the client's device as soon as they are received by the server. However, in order to receive pushed messages, both the mail server and the user's e-mail client must support push technology.Python:

Python is a high-level programming language designed to be easy to read and simple to implement. It is open source, which means it is free to use, even for commercial applications. Python can run on Mac, Windows, and Unix systems and has also been ported to Java and .NET virtual machines.

Python is considered a scripting language, like Ruby orPerl and is often used for creating Web applicationsand dynamic Web content. It is also supported by a number of 2D and 3D imaging programs, enabling users to create custom plug-ins and extensions with Python. Examples of applications that support a Python API include GIMP, Inkscape, Blender, and Autodesk Maya.

Scripts written in Python (.PY files) can be parsed and run immediately. They can also be saved as a compiled programs (.PYC files), which are often used as programming modules that can be referenced by other Python programs.

When someone installs and uses commercial softwarewithout paying for the program, it is called "pirating" the software. This name comes from the traditional meaning of the word "pirate," which is a sea-faring criminal that steals and loots belongings from others. But far from the stereotypical sea pirate, a software pirate can be anyone who owns a computer. Software piracy is committed by simply downloading or copying a program that a user has not paid for.
Since computer programs are stored in a digital format, they are easy to copy and reproduce. For example, a game may beburned to a CD and transferred to the computer of an individual who has not paid for the program. Software programs can also be illegally downloaded from the Internet from unauthorized sources. Since pirating software does not require many resources, it has grown into a major problem for the computer industry.
While it may seem like an innocuous act, pirating software is the same as stealing. Software companies often invest thousands or even millions of dollars into creating the programs they sell. The income from selling these programs is what allows companies to produce the software and to continue improving the programs we use. Just because it is possible to copy a software program does not mean it is OK. Installing a commercial program from an illegal copy is the same thing as walking out of a store with the program and not paying for it.
While there are some programs that are free to use (such as shareware and freeware programs), it is important to pay for commercial software. You can avoid software piracy by only downloading software from authorized sources and making sure that you have valid software licenses for all the programs you use. Remember that paying for software programs supports the software industry, which is good for all of us!


Stands for "Point to Point Protocol." It is the Internet standard for dial-up modem connections. PPP is a set of rules that defines how your modem exchanges packets of data with other systems on the Internet. If you connect to your ISP with a dial-up modem, you are most likely using PPP.