Stands for "Network Address Translation." NAT translates the IP addresses of computers in a local network to a single Ip Address.

Name Server:

A name server translates domain names into IP addresses. This makes it possible for a user to access a website by typing in the domain name instead of the website's actual IP address. For example, when you type in "," the request gets sent to Microsoft's name server which returns the IP address of the Microsoft website.
Each domain name must have at least two name servers listed when the domain is registered. These name servers are commonly named and, where "servername" is the name of the server. The first server listed is the primary server, while the second is used as a backup server if the first server is not responding.
Name servers are a fundamental part of the Domain Name System (DNS). They allow websites to use domain names instead of IP addresses, which would be much harder to remember. In order to find out what a certain domain name's name servers are, you can use a WHOIS lookup tool.


A namespace is a group of related elements that each have a unique name or identifier. There are several different types of namespaces, and each one has a specific syntax used to define the corresponding elements. Each element within a namespace has a "local name" that serves as a unique identifier.
Namespaces are used in many areas of computing, such as domain names, file paths, and XMLdocuments. Below are examples of these different applications.


Stands for "Network Basic Input/Output System." NetBIOS was introduced in 1983 by IBM as an improvement to the standard BIOS used by Windows-based computers. The BIOS provides an interface between the computer's operating system and the hardware. As the name implies, NetBIOS adds support for networking, including the ability to recognize other devices connected to the network.

Netmask: The terms netmask and subnet mask are often used interchangeably. However, subnet masks are used primarily in network configurations, while netmasks typically refer to classes of IP addresses. They are used to define a range of IP addresses that can be used by an ISP or other organization.

A new user of a technology, such as a computer, a certain computer program, or the Internet, is often referred to as a "newbie." The term originated sometime around 1990 and supposedly comes from the English phrase, "new boy," which refers to someone in their first year of public schooling. In online chat rooms, veteran net users like to call anybody who asks an easy question a newbie. If you ever get called a newbie, just shake it off -- everybody has to learn sometime.


Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless connectivity standard (Ecma-340, ISO/IEC 18092) that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between devices when they're touched together, or brought within a few centimeters of each other.


Any system or device connected to a network is also called a node. For example, if a network connects a file server, five computers, and two printers, there are eight nodes on the network. Each device on the network has a network address, such as a MAC address, which uniquely identifies each device. This helps keep track of where data is being transferred to and from on the network.

The high-speed part of a common chipset architecture in a computer. The Northbridge is the controller that interconnects the CPU to memory via the frontside bus (FSB). It also connects peripherals via high-speed channels such as AGP and PCI Express. The Northbridge may include a display controller, obviating the need for a separate display adapter.

NoSQL is a non-relational database that stores and accesses data using key-values. Instead of storing data in rows and columns like a traditional database, a NoSQL DBMS stores each item individually with a unique key. Additionally, a NoSQL database does not require a structured schema that defines each table and the related columns. This provides a much more flexible approach to storing data than a relational database. While relational databases (like MySQL) are ideal for storing structured data, their rigid structure makes it difficult to add new fields and quickly scale the database. NoSQL provides an unstructured or "semi-structured" approach that is ideal for capturing and storing user generated content (UGC). This may include text, images, audio files, videos, click streams, tweets, or other data. While relational databases often become slower and more inefficient as they grow, NoSQL databases are highly scalable. In fact, you can add thousands or hundreds of thousands of new records to a NoSQL database with a minimal decrease in performance.

Stands for "Non-Volatile Random Access Memory." NVRAM is a type of RAM that retains data after the host device's power is turned off. Two common types of NVRAM include SRAM and EEPROM.
SRAM (pronounced "s-ram") retains data by using an alternative source of power such as a battery. SRAM is often used to store computer hardware settings that need to be maintained when the computer is shut down. Common examples include the BIOS settings on Windows computers or the PRAM settings on Macintosh systems. Since SRAM typically uses a battery to retain memory, if the battery dies or is disconnected, the data stored in the SRAM will be lost. Therefore, if BIOS or PRAM settings are not retained after a computer is restarted, it is likely the computer's battery has lost its charge and needs to be replaced.